From a number of recent studies, it has become clear that blind people can appreciate the use of outlines and perspectives to describe the arrangement of objects and other surfaces in space. But pictures are more than literal representations. This fact was drawn to my attention dramatically when a blind woman in one of my investigations decided on her own initiative to draw a wheel as it was spinning. To show this motion, she traced a curve inside the circle (Fig. 1). I was taken aback, lines of motion, such as the one she used, are a very recent invention in the history of illustration. Indeed, as art scholar David Kunzle notes, Wilhelm Busch, a trend-setting nineteenth-century cartoonist, used virtually no motion lines in his popular figure until about 1877.
To search out these answers, I created raised-line drawings of five different wheels, depicting spokes with lines that curved, bent, waved, dashed and extended beyond the perimeters of the wheel. I then asked eighteen blind volunteers to feel the wheels and assign one of the following motions to each wheel: wobbling, spinning fast, spinning steadily, jerking or braking. My control group consisted of eighteen sighted undergraduates from the University of Toronto.
Words associated Agreement among
with circle/square subjects(%)
We have found that the blind understand other kinds of visual metaphors as well. One blind woman drew a picture of a child inside a heart-choosing that symbol, she said, to show that love surrounded the child. With Chang Hong Liu, a doctoral student from china, I have begun exploring how well blind people understand the symbolism behind shapes such as hearts that do not directly represent their meaning.
Choose the correct letter, A, B,C or D.
Write your answers in boxes 27 –29 on your answer sheet.
27 In the ﬁrst paragraph the writer makes the point that blind people
A. may be interested in studying art.
B. can draw outlines of different objects and surfaces.
C. can recognize conventions such as perspective.
D. can draw accurately.
A. drew a circle on her own initiative.
B. did not understand what a wheel looked like.
C. included a symbol representing movement.
D. was the ﬁrst person to use lines of motion.
A. had good understanding of symbols representing movement.
B. could control the movement of wheels very accurately.
C. worked together well as a group in solving problems.
D. got better results than the sighted undergraduates.
Look at the following diagrams (Questions 30 –32), and the list of types of movement below. Match each diagram to the type of movement A–E generally assigned to it in the experiment. Choose the correct letter A–E and write them in boxes 30–32 on your answer sheet.
A steady spinning
B jerky movement
C rapid spinning
D wobbling movement
E use of brakes
Complete the summary below using words from the box. Write your answers in boxes 33 –39 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any word more than once.
associations blind deep hard hundred identical pairs shapes
Sighted similar shallow soft words
Choose the correct letter, A , B , C or D. Write your answer in box 40 on your answer sheet.
A The blind represent some aspects of reality differently from sighted people.
B The blind comprehend visual metaphors in similar ways to sighted people.
C The blind may create unusual and effective symbols to represent reality.
D The blind may be successful artists if given the right training.
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