What is a 'press release'?
a. A print or online communication sent to news media, also known as a news release.
b. Specifically an online briefing
c. A speech made by a company spokesman, especially at a time of crisis.
d. When the press are released from the briefing room after photographs have been taken.
What is a 'cue sheet'?
a. The tip right at the end of a snooker cue, for snooker, a game often played at lunchtimes at Public Relations firms.
b. The television monitor from which lines are read during press conferences.
c. A special type of card-like printing paper.
d. Briefing notes, often to help the company spokesman prepare for an interview with a journalist on a prepared subject.
What is the term used to describe the relationship between a change in an advertising budget and the resultant change in product sales?
a. Ad. fix
b. Advertising elasticity
c. Marketing ploy
d. Advertising inflation
What is the name given to a short song, usually mentioning a brand or product benefit, used in a commercial?
e. None of the above
What is a 'non-apology apology' and why is it clever - but morally dubious - as a marketing tool?
a. It's a statement in the form of an apology that is nothing of the sort, a common gambit in politics and Public Relations.
b. A sincere and heartfelt company apology.
c. A turning point in a war of words, when one side backs down a little.
d. A cunning trick to viciously undermine an opponent, and dissolve their business dealings.
What does 'militainment' mean when representing the military to the general population?
b. Part militia, part standing army
c. A portmanteau of "Military" and "entertainment." It is defined as either entertainment featuring and celebrating the military, or controlled by the military.
d. A key word of marketing-speak whereby military personnel are seen to entertain their own soldiers to boost morale.
What are 'seasonal ratings adjustments'?
a. Matching the winter to the summer rating exactly.
b. In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g. weather and holidays.
c. Hiding the ratings results from the media from one season to the next.
d. Doubling TV ratings by estimating the number of people at a residence.
What is the name of the technique of using low pressure tactics in commercials and advertising in order to make a sale?
a. Market targeting
b. Base rate
c. Soft sell
d. Values and Lifestyle Research (VALS)
e. Hard sell
What is an 'exclusive'?
a. A one-off TV appearance presented by a celebrity.
b. Very expensive online shopping goods.
c. A news story offered by a PR practitioner to a single newspaper title, radio, TV station or website.
d. A division within a Public Relations company responsible for managing all the other divisions.
What is the name given to an advertisement that has the appearance of a news article or editorial (in a print publication)?
b. Local feature
c. Classified ad.
d. Front-page banner
Who are the 'sector/trade press'?
a. The newspapers and magazines read by the general population.
b. The media relevant to specific audiences, such as special interest magazines, trade journals etc.
c. Private collectible newspapers often archived at universities and museums.
d. Heads of the top five media corporations in a given country.
When printing copy, what does an 'em' refer to?
a. A unit of type measurement, based on the 'M' character, denoting the width of a single printed character.
b. A double space between words.
c. The space between sentences, longer than the space between characters.
d. Twice the width of an 'N' space.
Name the well-known phrase used as a response to inquiries which the respondent does not wish to answer, often to avoid being Quoted in print.
a. No way
b. No buts
c. But maybe
d. No comment
e. Yes man
What is 'airbrushing' and when is it usually employed?
a. A cleaning technique employed at Public Relations firms, whereby the floor is airbrushed a shiny white color.
b. An artist's technique for creating a smooth gradation of color, often used to cover physical imperfections in a photograph.
c. Skipping over certain paragraphs when reading from an autocue.
d. A technique of mass e-mailing but in a way that hides the recipients' e-mail addresses from one another.
What is 'e-PR'?
a. Using Public Relations techniques in an online environment.
b. Public Relations online.
c. e-PR involves using the internet and new technologies (such as IM or Skype) to communicate with stakeholders.
d. Same as online-PR.
e. All of the above
Name the world's largest independent Public Relations firm from the list below.
e. b and d
What is 'media spin'?
a. An act of self-promotion on television or radio where personal credentials are exaggerated.
b. The same as playing the blame game through the media.
c. The term used to describe media re-interpretation of events, often to the point where the angle or meaning of a story is changed.
d. A kind of PR campaign where the media presents a verifiable version of events that is simple and focused
e. None of the above
What is 'narrowcasting'?
a. Using a traditional, narrow TV set rather than a flatscreen.
b. Broadcasting one TV or internet signal all over a houses to multiple TVs or computers.
c. A kind of fishing technique similar to fly fishing — a frequent getaway for Public Relations executives.
d. Using a specific broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests.
What is an 'embargo'?
a. A restriction on international border imports
b. A Public Relations website where marketing information can be sourced and downloaded.
c. A media delay in reporting a significant event due to a technical hitch.
d. A warning to the media not to publish a news item until the date specified on the release.
e. None of the above
What does it mean when a newspaper or magazine copy or a picture is said to 'bleed'?
a. The copy or picture extends — seemingly 'bleeds' - beyond the normal margin of a printed page, often all the way to the edge.
b. The colors all blue together, often resulting in a clear white effect.
c. The copy is black and white only.
d. The copy is a mixture of black and white, and two other colors, such as red and green.
What is an 'electric spectacular'?
a. Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.
b. A car roadshow with the fastest cars on the market, an event covered by all the major newspapers.
c. A hot-air balloon.
d. An advertising technique where colored lights are given away free on the covers of magazines and newspapers.
What is 'sound science'?
a. The science of sound waves, their creation and manipulation.
b. The same as smart science, but always presented to the public by a celebrity.
c. Dumb science mixed with a touch of smart science.
d. Science that is deemed generally trustworthy by both experts and a great proportion of the population, but a slightly dumbed down accessible and promotable version of this same science.
In PR terms, what is 'full service'?
a. In-house design plus corporate marketing techniques.
b. A one-stop PR shop incorporating clients from different industry sectors, and offering a range of PR services.
c. Partial service extended over a long period of time.
d. A freelance rate in which the employee works full-time, but remotely, outside the office.
What is an edition of a newspaper called that is available earlier than other editions?
a. Early edition
b. Bulldog edition
c. Breakfast paper
d. Sunrise newspaper
e. All of the above
What is a 'pseudo-event'?
a. An event promoted online, existing only in a virtual world.
b. A part-time event, often taking place at lunchtimes only.
c. An event or activity that exists for the sole purpose of garnering media publicity, serving little to no function connected to real life.
d. An event attended by celebrities only, especially in the film world.
What is the term given to a type of marketing in which a company adapts itself to uncontrollable factors within the industry?
What is 'corporate pathos'?
a. When a company gives 25% of its annual revenue to charity.
b. The CEO crying and begging forgiveness on national television, especially at Christmas.
c. A term used to define the employment of emotional engagement techniques to shape and alter the public's perspection of a given company.
d. When a company goes into either self-regulated liquidation or forced bankruptcy.
Which of the following is the best definition of 'brainstorming'?
a. The headache brought about by high profile Public Relations management strategies.
b. The IQ level of company employees when plotted on a comparative graph.
c. The creative process of group-thinking designed to stimulate new ideas on a given challenge or subject.
d. The decision to join a rival company for a group bonding exercise, such as a business team-building excursion.
What is a 'publicity stunt'?
a. Part-time work in the film industry as stuntmen by Public Relations employees.
b. A marketing ploy that deceives the public but results in a great many extra sales.
c. A planned event designed to draw the public's attention to a particular cause or campaign.
d. An individual who controls spin at a Public Relations firm.
Which of the following is the best definition of a 'brief'?
a. A client's instructions delivered to a consultancy, or directions communicated within a PR agency.
b. A short memo always distributed internally.
c. A brief radio or television slot as part of Public Relations promotion for a company.
d. A dress-down day at work, or the so-called 'Hawaiian Shirt Day' or 'Mufti Day.'
What is a story called in which the events are violently inflated to suggest the violation of a given set of assumed relationships, with the effect of reinstating the boundaries of those relationships?
a. Homemade video
b. Atrocity story
c. Caricature tale
d. Main news item
e. All of the above
What is the term used to describe consumers' perceptions that they are being misled by a company with regard to the environment?
d. Green Deception
e. Green Goblin
What is 'eye tracking'?
a. The eye examinations may PR companies buy for their employees.
b. A research technique that examines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the changing patterns of their eye movements.
c. The PR technique of using highly colorful commercials to keep viewers interested and so more likely to buy.
d. The PR technique of using fast visuals to keep viewers interested and so more likely to buy.
e. A machine that ensures all lines on a print advertisements are straight - which the naked eye cannot tell.
What is 'lobbying'?
a. Hanging out in the lobby of the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC.
b. Writing content for online home-shopping websites.
c. Running for local election
d. Impressing politicians and political groups with one's cause, as a means of influencing legislation.
e. All of the above
What is 'classified advertising'?
a. The same as classy advertising.
b. Advertising on the back page of mainstream newspapers, both broadsheets and tabloids.
c. Print advertising that is limited to certain specialized goods and services, and also usually limited in size and content.
d. Always advertisements in the 'lonely hearts' sections of both newspapers and magazines.
What is a 'boiler plate' text?
a. A text shaped like a plate (circular).
b. A text frequently written out-of-house but edited in-house.
c. A text manufactured using a special boiler-cooling method, so the paper is extra durable (and used as pamphlets and brochures).
d. A template text that is often reused without being altered (such as a press release).
Which of the following is the best description of 'managing the news'?
a. Influencing the presentation of information in the news media, often with a negative spin.
b. Deciding on the schedule of programs and their transmission order.
c. Appointing a hierarchy of news presenters.
d. Planning untrue stories and broadcasting them as though they were true.
What does the 'editorial leader' or 'leading article' of a UK or US newspaper or magazine commonly express?
b. The opinion of everyone at the newspaper.
c. The national feeling or zeitgeist.
d. The opinion of the editor, editorial board, or publisher.
e. All of the above
What is 'spin' exactly?
a. The rotation of company policy that often involves a high turnover of personnel.
b. The circular motion made by the revolving door at a Public Relations company's corporate headquarters.
c. The representation of an event so that the audience believes the opposite is true, often with malicious intent, and intending to willfully deceive.
d. The representation of an event or series of events to persuade public opinion to become for or against a certain organization or individual — not malicious, but often without real, factual or moral justification.
What is the phrase used to describe the top portion of a newspaper that often positions a news article in a prominent position?
a. Below the lip
b. Above the fold
c. At the corner
d. Tucked up
e. Central header
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